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Note de catalog

Numarul 2 / 30 august 2004 /
saptamanal de politica internationala
/ publicatie personala / Realizator: Nicu Ilie
 
 
Moldova in catalogul CIA ENG
 
Dosar: Va e teama de avion?
Moartea are aripi ROM
Marile deturnari de avioane si atentate sinucigase ROM
Atnetie! Cad MIG-uri ROM
Bucati de MIG s-au prabusit la Azomures ROM
Catastrofa aeriana din Rusia a fost cu siguranta un atentat ROM
Atentate cecene in Rusia ROM
Dublu accident aviatic cu parfum de atentat ROM
 
NATO
Doua divizii ale armatei americane vor parasi Germania în urmatorii zece ani ROM
Redesfasurare strategica a trupelor SUA ROM

Felicitari pentru tratamentul inuman aplicat prizonierilor FRA, ENG
 
 

Map of Romania

Romania vazuta de CIA ENG

 

Introduction Romania
Background:
The principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia - for centuries under the suzerainty of the Turkish Ottoman Empire - secured their autonomy in 1856; they united in 1859 under the new name of Romania. The country gained full independence in 1878. It joined the Allied Powers in World War I and acquired new territories following the conflict. In 1940, it allied with the Axis powers and participated in the 1941 German invasion of the USSR. Three years later, overrun by the Soviets, Romania signed an armistice. The post-war Soviet occupation led to the formation of a Communist "people's republic" in 1947 and the abdication of the king. The decades-long rule of dictator Nicolae CEAUSESCU, who took power in 1965, and his Securitate police state became increasingly oppressive and draconian through the 1980s. CEAUSESCU was overthrown and executed in late 1989. Former Communists dominated the government until 1996, when they were swept from power by a fractious coalition of centrist parties. Currently, the Social Democratic Party forms a nominally minority government, which governs with the support of the opposition Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania. Bucharest must address rampant corruption, while invigorating lagging economic and democratic reforms, before Romania can achieve its hope of joining the European Union.
Geography Romania
Location:
Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine
Geographic coordinates:
46 00 N, 25 00 E
Map references:
Europe
Area:
total: 237,500 sq km
land: 230,340 sq km
water: 7,160 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Oregon
Land boundaries:
total: 2,508 km
border countries: Bulgaria 608 km, Hungary 443 km, Moldova 450 km, Serbia and Montenegro 476 km, Ukraine (north) 362 km, Ukraine (east) 169 km
Coastline:
225 km
Maritime claims - as described in UNCLOS 1982 (see Notes and Definitions):
territorial sea: 12 NM
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
contiguous zone: 24 NM
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
Climate:
temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms
Terrain:
central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Plain of Moldavia on the east by the Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
highest point: Moldoveanu 2,544 m
Natural resources:
petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydropower
Land use:
arable land: 40.57%
permanent crops: 2.4%
other: 57.03% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
28,800 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
earthquakes, most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides
Environment - current issues:
soil erosion and degradation; water pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
Geography - note:
controls most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine
People Romania
Population:
22,355,551 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 16.2% (male 1,861,801; female 1,770,746)
15-64 years: 69.4% (male 7,712,612; female 7,791,900)
65 years and over: 14.4% (male 1,330,994; female 1,887,498) (2004 est.)
Median age:
total: 36.1 years
male: 34.7 years
female: 37.5 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
-0.11% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
10.69 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
11.69 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
-0.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 27.24 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 23.86 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
male: 30.41 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71.12 years
male: 67.63 years
female: 74.82 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.35 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
6,500 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
350 (2001 est.)
Nationality:
noun: Romanian(s)
adjective: Romanian
Ethnic groups:
Romanian 89.5%, Hungarian 6.6%, Roma 2.5%, Ukrainian 0.3%, German 0.3%, Russian 0.2%, Turkish 0.2%, other 0.4% (2002)
Religions:
Eastern Orthodox (including all sub-denominations) 87%, Protestant 6.8%, Catholic 5.6%, other (mostly Muslim) 0.4%, unaffiliated 0.2% (2002)
Languages:
Romanian (official), Hungarian, German
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.4%
male: 99.1%
female: 97.7% (2003 est.)

This page was last updated on 11 May, 2004


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